Current situation and technological development of

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The current situation of safety production and Technological Development in non coal mining mountains in China

the gross output value of mining and beneficiation industry in non coal mining mountains in China accounts for about 1% of the national GDP, which is an important foundation for the rapid development of the national economy. However, at present, China's non coal mine production is deeply troubled by major accidents and disasters. About 3000 people die in various mine accidents every year, which is a country with a high incidence of mine production safety accidents. The death rate of one million tons of ore is more than 30 times that of the United States, South Africa and other mining developed countries. According to rough statistics, the direct and indirect economic losses caused by work accidents are 1% - 2% of GDP According to this calculation, the annual accident loss of non coal mines in China is 1.1 ~ 2.6 billion yuan. In the development of mining industry, the severe situation of poor safety production guarantee conditions, many hidden dangers of engineering geological disasters, and the continuous occurrence of major and serious malignant accidents has seriously restricted the development of China's mining industry towards deep, high-intensity and large-scale development

1 main hazard sources of safety production in non coal mines

at present, major threats to safety production in non coal mines in China mainly include

(1) safety guarantee of high stress, high temperature and high well depth in deep mining. With the gradual depletion of resources in the shallow crust, mining development is developing towards the deep crust. The increase of mining depth and intensity will bring a series of problems to mine safety production: the threat of rock burst increases with the increase of mining depth; The probability of water inrush induced by deep mining increases, and the water inrush accident tends to be serious; The ground temperature increases, the ventilation is difficult, and the deep mining environment is bad

(2) roof fall and collapse. Roof fall and collapse, due to their contingency and universality, have always been a mine safety production problem of concern that the loading speed valve should be manually controlled to control the rising speed of the piston (the speed and safety valve are one-piece). According to statistics, in 2001, there were 1780 roof fall accidents in mines, with 2208 deaths, accounting for 15% of the accidents and deaths in industrial and mining enterprises respectively 6% and 17 6%; From 1987 to 1999, the death toll of roof caving and collapse accidents in non coal mines accounted for 44% of the death toll, and the death toll of millions of tons of ore was much higher than that in western developed countries

(3) groundwater disaster. Groundwater disasters are mainly manifested in water inrush and flooding of wells, seawater intrusion, destruction of water resources, underground debris flow and ground collapse, which endanger mining safety and even endanger the survival of mines. For example, in Gujiatai iron mine, 29 people were killed due to water inrush from the roof, and the mine has not been able to resume mining so far. Another example is in lajiapo tin mine in Nandan, where more than 80 people were killed due to water inrush from the old hole

(4) collapse, landslide and debris flow of tailings dam waste dump. Over the years, the stockpile of waste rocks in China's mines has reached 12.7 billion tons, and the cumulative stock of metal mine tailings has reached more than 5 billion tons. Many waste rocks and tailings storage yards are prone to collapse, landslide, debris flow and other accidents due to improper disposal or the influence of terrain, climatic conditions and human factors, resulting in heavy losses to people's lives, property and environment. According to the safety inspection and evaluation of tailings pond by the State Economic and Trade Commission in 2000, 1/3 of the tailings pond in China is in a certain problem, and 1/3 of the tailings pond is a dangerous pond. A large number of tailings ponds operate with diseases and cannot be effectively treated. Once an accident occurs, the consequences are unimaginable. For example, on October 18, 2000, the tailings reservoir of Hongtu concentrator in Nandan county, Guangxi suddenly collapsed, causing a total of 28 deaths in the downstream, and houses and land along the way were washed out or submerged

(5) instability and collapse of goaf. The open stoping method is very common in underground mines in China, and the proportion of metal mines with the least application of open stoping method is as high as 30% - 40%. The continuous expansion and accumulation of underground mined out areas and their induced collapses have brought great losses to the safety production of underground mines in China. According to incomplete statistics, 3D printing material providers in Dachang mining area in Guangxi are also trying to explore within less than 5 km2, and there are 4.5 million m3 unfilled areas; The Shizishan Copper Mine in Tongling, Anhui Province has also formed a huge goaf; The civilian goaf of baiyinchangba lead zinc mine in Gansu Province is the biggest technical problem and serious hidden danger of geological disasters faced by the mine in the future; The volume of the goaf in the rich ore section of Shizhuyuan Duofei coal mine in Hunan Province has reached 1.7 million m3. Collapse caused by mining in China 3 Tightness of clamping shaft: the adjustable subsidence area has reached 1150 km2. There are more than 30 mining cities where mining subsidence disasters occur, and the annual loss caused by ground subsidence is more than 400million yuan. From July, 1989 to January, 1998, the Tuancheng iron mine in Wu'an city alone had eight gob collapses, resulting in more than 20 houses destroyed, 6 deaths and at least 3044 Direct economic loss of 70000 yuan

(6) open pit slope landslide. With the increase of the mining depth of open-pit mines, the slope height is also increasing, and the instability phenomena such as landslides are increasing year by year. According to the incomplete statistics of large and medium-sized open-pit mines in China, unstable slopes or slopes with potential landslide hazards account for about 15% - 20% of the total mine slopes, and individual mines account for up to 30%. It is not difficult to see that if the above six problems are not well solved, it will not only increase the risk of casualty accidents in the mine, but also make the normal production of the mine unable to proceed smoothly. Therefore, we must carry out scientific and technological research on mine safety assurance, adopt high-tech means to implement various monitoring and early warning measures, monitor, monitor and early warning the deep mining of mines and major engineering geological disasters, find hidden dangers in time, take reasonable prevention and control measures in time, and change the accident treatment into accident prevention, so as to improve the safety assurance of deep mining of mines and the prevention and control technology of geological disasters to a new level, To implement the safety production policy of "safety first, prevention first" and improve the intrinsic safety degree and guarantee ability of mines in China

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